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Volume 3 Issue 6

What is Reason?

Danielle Sandi Pinheiro
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract Brazil is facing a climate change governance puzzle in which we can identify economic and political instabilities interacting in a conflicting manner with power relations. The exercise of institutionalized power through the national government and international institutions should be enough to reach an environmental second best outcome—the institutional power... Read more
Ruslan Grinberg, Alexander Rubinstein
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract The present article traces the authors’ approach to constructing a new economic theory of the modern state, considering the theory of patronized goods and a general concept of mixed economy failures as its two important components. This approach is based on the original interpretation of the term ‘irrationality’ and proposes a more general definition of ‘... Read more
Elif Çepni
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract The main aim of this paper is to discuss the theories of decision-making, the problems of predictions and how the tools utilized for the process of decision-making at the macro-level could be enhanced for policy makers in our post-normal times. Decision-making is the process of identifying and choosing alternatives based on the values and preferences of the... Read more
Jo Leinen, Andreas Bummel
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract One of the key challenges of modern times is the increasing gap between accelerating technological innovation and slow political adaptation. Economic, social and technological developments have led to the emergence of an interdependent world system that revolves around the entire Earth. The functioning of this complex system and perhaps the survival of human... Read more
Hazel Henderson
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract This article is an exploration of humanity’s evolution from our earliest expansion out of Africa to today’s colonization of planet Earth. It traces how humanity’s success was predominantly based on our ability to bond, communicate, share and cooperate in ever larger organizational forms. Competition was also key, along with individual creativity, as our... Read more
Carlos Blanco, Alexandre Perez Casares, Ramon Rodriganez Riesco
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract What are the goals of education, and how should they be interpreted in our time? The challenges posed by the emergence of technologies like Artificial Intelligence demand a renewed reflection on the nature and scope of the educational process, in order to address the question of how to educate the human mind to cope with these problems and opportunities. The... Read more
Erich Hoedl
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract Accelerating globalization leads through its rapidly increasing interconnectivities to a highly interdependent global whole with different functional subsystems, which are currently divorced from each other. The economy is separated from the society and within the economy financial, man-made, natural and human capital are divorced from each other, which leads... Read more
Donato Kiniger-Passigli
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract Human tragedies continue to repeat themselves in the same hotspots of the planet. The inadequacy of all remedial policies is in front of our own eyes, but preventive measures are not put in place due to multiple interests and causes. However, a shift to prevention is required if we want to avoid further intensification of destructive phenomena such as... Read more
Frank Dixon
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract The UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are one of the most important milestones of the sustainability movement. Broad embrace of the goals by companies and governments shows growing awareness of the need to effectively address major environmental, social and economic problems. In his 2019 letter to CEOs, Larry Fink, CEO of Blackrock, the world’s largest... Read more
Fadwa El Guindi
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract The article presents a critical analysis of the existing order of globalism, which imposes Western values and constructs on the human universe. This in turn leads to adverse results. It produces tensions, wars, conflicts and racial and cultural divides. Alternatively, this analysis puts together ideas from the Ancient Egyptian vision of world order and... Read more
Philippe Destatte
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract We live in an age where populism, as both a totalitarian and a Manichean political attitude, is becoming more established on both sides of the Atlantic. An age, also, in which there is a proliferation of democratic innovations attempting to address the issues of the 21st century and the crises in representation and delegation. The question of public... Read more
Michael Marien, David Harries
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract This Discussion Outline was prepared for the WAAS-organized March 17, 2019, Special Meeting on Global Leadership for the 21st Century—Ideas That Can Lead to Action, which followed the VII Global Baku Forum, March 14-16. Its statements are derived from or supported by the contents of The Security & Sustainability Guide (; in... Read more
Dimitar Tchurovsky
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract Society has two parallel lines of development—the Course of History and the Spiral of Social Evolution. Development is determined bilaterally by objective and subjective factors. The subjective factor determines the content of society; the objective factor determines the structure of the society. The upcoming transition of mankind is evolutionary by nature, i... Read more
Ashok Natarajan
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract Ideas have catalytic power to change the world. They are leaders of social evolution. Evolutionary developments in science, religion, art all have at their roots mental ideas that later realize themselves through physical acts. Ideas release the human energy of the collective. That energy is directed into a force for action and becomes effective when it is... Read more
Garry Jacobs, Donato Kiniger-Passigli, David Chikvaidze
 Get Full Text in PDF Editorial Note: This article is the initial background paper for a 15-month project entitled “Global Leadership in the 21st Century” launched by WAAS in collaboration with the United Nations in Geneva at a one-day roundtable hosted by the Nizami Ganjavi International Center, Baku, Azerbaijan on March 17, 2019. The paper explores fundamental questions in order to... Read more
William Byers
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract This paper considers the central paradox of our time, namely, the triumphs of reason as reflected by the advances in scientific disciplines versus the seemingly inexorable increase in unreason as seen in the growth of authoritarianism and the rejection of science. The roots of this contradiction lie in a circularity in the scientific method itself, which... Read more
Inside this Issue The articles in this issue of Cadmus address some of the most pressing opportunities and challenges posed to humanity in the 21st century. Inspired by historical insights, they examine the process of social evolution and the successful and unsuccessful responses that have been the source of earlier crises and the impetus for the great advances of the 20th century. The human mind... Read more