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Knowledge, Science & Values

Recognizing Unrecognized Genius
Original Thinking
Research Integrity: A Vital Condition for Science & Scholarship
In Search of Failure’s Silver Lining
The Moral Arc of History
In Search of a New Paradigm for Global Development
Networks: Innovation, growth and sustainable development
Human Centered Development Perspective
Creative Consciousness
New Paradigm in Human Development: A Progress Report
The New Sciences of Networks & Complexity: A Short Introduction
A Note on the Difference Between Complicated and Complex Social Systems
Change the World by Changing Economics
The Digital Era: Challenges for the Modern Mind
Lessons from World War I
Unification in the Social Sciences: Search for a Science of Society
Anticipation: A New Thread for the Human and Social Sciences?
Society and Social Power
The Conscious Individual
Leadership for a New Paradigm in Human Development
Contextual Education
Viable Solutions for seemingly Intractable Problems
Onwards! Reinforcing Democracy for the 21st Century
Social Responsibility and Self-governance by the Scientific Community
Relevance of Spiritual Principles for Resolving Social Problems
A Brief History of Mind and Civilization
Ruđer Bošković and the Structure of the Experience of Scientific Discovery
Mind, Thinking and Creativity
The Integration of Knowledge
Knowing Beyond the Structure: Maximizing Social Power through a Synergistic, Values-based Approach on Diversity
The Need for Person-Centered Education
A Flat World with Deep Fractures
Human Connectivity: The Key to Progress
Scientific Knowledge and the Citizen
Unifying Subjectivity and Objectivity*
Social Power, Law and Society
On the Conditions of Collective Action in Globalisation*
Towards a Conceptual System for Managing in the Anthropocene*
Globalisation Trapped
Education Isn’t Education: The Creativity Response or How to Improve the Learning Curve in Our Society
Disruptive Technologies, A Critical Yet Hopeful View
The Role of Presuppositions in the Social Sciences
Anticipation in Law and Social Science*
Peace, Security, Globalisation & Cultural Diplomacy
Human Attitudes that Prevent the Advance of Human Progress and Civilization
Multilateralism: Its Past, Present and Future

Robert Oppenheimer
Get Full Text in PDF *The words “prospects in the arts and sciences” mean two quite different things to me. One is prophecy: What will the scientists discover and the painters paint, what new forms will alter music, what parts of experience will newly yield to objective description? The other meaning is that of a view: What do we see when we look at the world today and compare it with the past?... Read more
Valentina Bondarenko
Get Full Text in PDF We should not discard our dreams,because the surrounding reality is too complex;We should not stop following our ideals,because they appear to us as unfeasible. – Xi Jinping Abstract The major idea of this article is that for a scientifically based understanding of possible future for humanity we need a new knowledge of regularities for its development. The currently... Read more
Fadwa El Guindi
Get Full Text in PDF Abstract A rapid change in technology is creating pressure on education to meet employment needs. Two overarching points are discussed in this article: first, rather than fearing the robotization of humans we should humanize technology to serve humanity and second, any educational reform must be contextualized: in particular social and cultural traditions, values and... Read more
David Chikvaidze
Get Full Text in PDF Abstract The narrative ‘sweeps through’ history, starting with the Treaties of Westphalia in 1648, on to the Congress of Vienna of 1814-15, to the current terminology of ‘modern multilateralism’ with its lineage from the Versailles Treaty of 1919 and the League of Nations, to the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference at Bretton Woods in 1944, the European Coal and... Read more
Juri Engelbrecht, Momir Djurovic, Thomas Reuter
Get Full Text in PDF Abstract The present article is written as an issue paper on academies for the GL-21 Project. It traces activities of academies and their associations in the present information-rich society. The state-of-the-art of the academic world is briefly described. This permits to focus on general trends in knowledge management in general and the role of academies. The successful... Read more
Rodolfo Fiorini, Carlos Alvarez Pereira, Garry Jacobs, Donato Kiniger-Passigli, Alberto Zucconi, Nebojša Nešković, Herwig Schopper, Vojislav Mitic, Hazel Henderson, Mariana Todorova, Witold Kinsner, Luigi Cocchiarella
Get Full Text in PDF Abstract The goal of this paper is to focus on the Global Leadership Challenge in the 21st Century with an integrated and strategic perspective in science, engineering and technology (SET). “In any crisis, leaders have two equally important responsibilities: solve the immediate problem and keep it from happening again. The COVID-19 pandemic is a case in point. We need to... Read more
Robert van Harten
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract Quantum physics with quantum entanglement as its crown, has shaken up science as we knew it. ‘Is another powerful change in the offing?,’ we can ask. The consequences of implementing the universal truth that ‘the force is (always) anterior to the instrument’ into our general scientific approach, will be phenomenal and earthshaking. As it reverses... Read more
Ivo Šlaus
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract In our interdependent and fast changing world, every individual’s future depends on the wellbeing of all humanity. Transformative out-of-the-box thinking is urgently required, especially in South-East Europe, which occupies a unique position in the world. Historically, it has been the crossroads of cultures and civilizations. Its strategic geographic location... Read more
João Caraça
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract The emergence of science-based industries after the Second World War, characterized by high technological intensity, created deep impacts on the economy, society, and on the scientific establishment itself. Science became a critical factor of competitiveness and economic growth and technology-driven research began to attract a majority of science-devoted... Read more
Ashok Natarajan
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract All values are spiritual in their essence, even those that appear to be physical. For all values seek perfection of the whole. The widest and highest perfection is based on the totality and oneness of reality. Such a perfection is comprehensive and inclusive. It is founded on truths that complete other truths rather than compete with them. Despite their vast... Read more
Robert van Harten
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract We are entering a phase in the evolution of life and society where falsehood is not tenable anymore. It shows in the acute emergence of concealed and hidden systems and organisations of falsehood into the open. The world is readying itself to embrace harmony and unity as the real truth and basis of life on earth. The destruction of life and our world has... Read more
Keith Suter
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract This article uses the scenario planning technique to examine the future of the current nation-state system. Scenario 1: “Steady State” argues that despite all the talk of global governance, the basic nation-state structure will remain; it may have its problems but it is the best of the options. Scenario 2: “World State” is based on there being no purely... Read more
Michael Marien
 Get Full Text in PDF Reviewed by Michael Marien A Farewell to Ice: A Report from the Arctic. Peter Wadhams (Prof. of Ocean Physics, Cambridge University). New York: Oxford University Press, Sept 2017, 240p, $21.95pb. (First published in UK by Allen Lane, Feb 2017.) Global Green Shift: When Ceres Meets Gaia. John A. Mathews (Prof. of Management, Macquarie University). London and... Read more
Ashok Natarajan
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract Human civilization is a long record of the evolution of human thought Rationality enables civilizations to progress. Since the time of Socrates, human advancement has relied heavily on the power of logic and reason. Logic involves study while reason involves implementation. Converting reason into action would require not so much new creativity but a greater... Read more
Walton Stinson
 Get Full Text in PDF Editorial Note: This article is the first in a new series on individuals of the past and present who offer fresh perspectives and fundamental insights into the nature of reality, social processes and humanity’s place in the world. Sri Aurobindo was a multifaceted man, viewed in different ways by different people. To some he was a spiritual or religious figure, a poet... Read more
David Harries
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract Strategic Foresight is usually understood to be a process for exploring possible and plausible futures, or an ability to better anticipate and prepare for what those futures may hold. This perspective may reflect the majority of foresight practice, but, intellectually and in terms of potential value, it is incomplete and unnecessarily constrains the scope and... Read more
Frank Dixon
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract Over the past 15 years, sustainability has become mainstream in the corporate and financial sectors. But environmental and social conditions are declining rapidly in many regions. Nearly all corporate and financial sector sustainability strategies are focused on company-level activities, such as unilaterally mitigating negative environmental and social... Read more
Gerald Gutenschwager
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract When the World Academy of Art & Science (WAAS) was founded, it sought to address the gap between science and society, or rather the apparent unwillingness or inability of scientists to address their responsibilities as important members of society. This problem is related to the growing disparity between tool making and symbol making, those ancient skills... Read more
Janani Ramanathan
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract Employers worldwide are seeking and failing to find in new recruits many skills that are critical for success. Skills that enable employees to work as part of a team, communicate effectively, take decisions, lead, adapt to change and solve problems creatively are not often found in fresh graduates. Education does not impart these skills as efficiently as it... Read more
Martin Ramirez, Juan Cayón-Peña
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract Scientists have an important role not only in avoiding inappropriate and dangerous decisions, but also advising policymakers and other stakeholders about the best and wiser moves to make towards a human-centered society, thereby fomenting scientific knowledge and enhancing cross-cultural connections and joint research. They should also not forget... Read more
Ashok Natarajan
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract This article argues for a positive, comprehensive conception of peace that goes beyond the mere absence of war and a more integrated conception of human security that encompasses a wider range of issues than threats of physical violence. Education is one of humanity’s most effective social institutions for redirecting the violent physical energies of... Read more
Winston P. Nagan, Megan Weeren
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract This article explores a particular aspect of the role of anticipation in social and legal processes. The program begins by recognizing that social interaction happens within a time-space manifold of events. This means that society functions in terms of events located on the plane of time and the situation of space. This means that social process is a dynamic... Read more
Carlos Blanco
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract Any expression of rationality is based upon premises, many of which cannot be ultimately justified. The role of these presuppositions becomes particularly important in the domains of the social sciences and the humanities. A philosophical reflection on the foundations and methodologies of these disciplines can shed valuable light on how to overcome the... Read more
Carlos Alvarez Pereira
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract A new perspective is attempted on the role played by Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in the evolution of human societies in the last few decades. Particular attention is paid to their (lack of) relationship with the challenges of sustainable development, presenting the view contrary to mainstream perception that for now ICTs have a negative... Read more
Stefan Brunnhuber
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract Despite rising expenditure and general enrolment rates on a global level, educational output is stagnating, if not declining. There is increasing empirical evidence that we need a completely different approach to enhancing the learning curve; this holds true for early childhood, primary education, secondary education and higher education. Most existing... Read more
João Caraça
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract The promise of making society progress through the direct applications of science was finally fulfilled in the mid-20th century. Science progressed immensely, propelled by the effects of the two world wars. The first science-based technologies saw the daylight during the 1940s and their transformative power was such that neither the military, nor... Read more
Robert Hoffman
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract This note takes as its frame of reference the concept of ‘deep thinking’ developed by William Byers [Byers 2015]. According to Byers, deep thinking or creative thought can emerge when a problem is framed by two (or more) conceptual systems and it is found that there are areas of incoherency between the conceptual systems. A new conceptual system... Read more
Augusto Santos Silva
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract One must confer specific attention to “collective action” in the framework of globalisation. The article addresses this issue both at the analytical and normative levels. For the first one, it makes use of sociology. Two main problems are identified: the inequalities and imbalances that constitute globalisation are associated to globalisation; and its... Read more
Saulo Casali Bahia
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract The article aims to discuss some aspects of the formal centers of social power. Thus, it seeks to answer how power becomes institutionalized in formal social organizations; what is the source of political power and how it is converted into institutions of governance; how legal power is generated by society and how it grows; what is the relationship... Read more
Murugesan Chandrasekaran
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract The contribution of modern science to the progress of civilization is immeasurable. Even its tendency toward exclusive concentration on the objective world has had salutary effects of great value. Modern science has wiped away much that was merely superstitious or speculative. Its rejection of unfounded opinions and prejudices has helped the thinking mind... Read more
Herwig Schopper
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract How can citizens become more aware of science and how it proceeds in order to be able to form their own opinion on science based problems concerning our environment and thus participate in taking decisions relating to technical matters? Scientific knowledge is also part of human culture and contributes to the evolution of human values like faith. What role... Read more
Janani Ramanathan
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract Progress results from human interaction. Advances in knowledge, transportation, communication, technology and industry have aided in social development only to the extent that they have brought greater numbers of people closer. It is only human ingenuity that has achieved. Historically, every event that marks a step forward in social evolution coincides... Read more
Emil Constantinescu
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract The Internet manages to connect different parts of the world, defies geographical distances and gives the impression that our planet is flat, but the Internet is there only for the ones who have the possibility and the ability to use it. Our contemporary flat world has deep transversal fractures which, like in many geological structures, make a direct... Read more
Alberto Zucconi
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract We, the children of the Anthropocene Era, are entering the 4th industrial revolution and the impact is going to be pervasive and of greater magnitude compared to the previous industrial revolutions. The incoming changes, approaching at an accelerating speed, will be impacting everything and everybody and blurring the lines between the physical, digital, and... Read more
Francis Brassard
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract Ruđer Josip Bošković (1711-1787) was a Jesuit priest and a scientist from the former Republic of Dubrovnik in today’s Croatia. He published many works in such fields as mathematics, physics, astronomy and geodesy. According to Werner Heisenberg, Bošković’s “main work, Theoria Philosophiae Naturalis, contains numerous ideas which have reached full expression... Read more
Marta Neškovic
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract In this article, a principal place is given to the question of how the ways we conceptualize the use of our mind influence the generation of social power. We define social power as the potency of socially integrated individuals to accomplish specific predetermined values. These values can be related to anything from concrete material prosperity to abstract... Read more
Janani Ramanathan
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract Global civilization is the product of diverse cultures, each contributing a unique perspective arising from the development of different mental faculties and powers of mind. The momentous achievements of modern science are the result of the cumulative development of mind’s capacity for analytic thinking, mathematical rendering and experimental validation. The... Read more
Carlos Blanco
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract The exponential growth of knowledge demands an interdisciplinary reflection on how to integrate the different branches of the natural sciences and the humanities into a coherent picture of world, life, and mind. Insightful intellectual tools, like evolutionary Biology and Neuroscience, can facilitate this project. It is the task of Philosophy to identify those... Read more
Garry Jacobs
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract The rational mind is the highest evolved status of human consciousness. The evolution of mind and civilization has proceeded hand in hand for millennia. The development of new capacities of mind made possible the development of tools, language, agriculture, permanent settlements, towns, cities, religion, trade, transportation, communication, government, law,... Read more
Ashok Natarajan
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract Society unknowingly follows the course of spiritual evolution. Spirituality is the quest for self-existent order and harmonious perfection. The evolution of society is driven by an irrepressible aspiration for the values that are the translation and embodiment of that order. The history of civilization is a record of its progressive emergence. Spirituality is... Read more
Momir Djurovic
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract Over the past century there have been many profound scientific, technological, economic and social transformations. In the near future, the most dramatic breakthroughs will probably be achieved through combinations of various scientific disciplines, such as work cutting across physics, molecular biology, neurosciences, biotechnology, nanotechnology and... Read more
Ismail Serageldin
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract Universal suffrage has been the primary goal of democratic evolution. Despite elections and other measures taken to ensure democratic rights, some desired outcomes such as equality and transparency are not being met. The current mode of our democratic system is archaic in addressing the world’s multifaceted global crises. So, there’s a dire need to incorporate... Read more
Ashok Natarajan
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract Life is filled with seemingly intractable problems. But life wisdom affirms that if there is a problem, there must be a solution. Or better yet, the solution to the problem lies within the problem itself. Problems have their roots in disharmony. Disharmony arises when a part separates itself from the whole and acts independently of the wider reality of which it... Read more
Janani Ramanathan
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract When the knowledge gained over centuries has to be presented to students through a 12-15 year study, it has to be abridged and organized elaborately. This process of encapsulating all knowledge into an educational course often results in fragmentation of knowledge and a mental divorce from life. Life knowledge that is reduced to objective principles may be... Read more
Janani Ramanathan
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract Everyone takes decisions and initiatives. Leaders take charge and initiate changes. Transformational leaders take responsibility for all and, guided by positive values, lead society into the future. These men and women of profound vision give expression to the subconscious aspirations of society that are striving to awaken, and act as a catalyst for their... Read more
Ashok Natarajan
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract This article traces the evolutionary development of human consciousness and its increasingly complex and sophisticated organization as human personality from the instinctive behavior of the animal and the subconscious conformity characteristic of early forms of human civilization through progressive stages of transition from physical to social to mental levels... Read more
Janani Ramanathan
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract Society is the source of immense power. Over the past few centuries humanity has record­ed phenomenal growth in its collective capacity for accomplishment, as reflected in the 12-fold growth in global per capita income since 1800. The remarkable achievements in living standards, longevity, science, technology, industry, education, democracy, human rights,... Read more
Roberto Poli
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract Anticipation is increasingly at the heart of urgent contemporary debates, from climate change to economic crisis. As societies are less confident that tradition will provide an effective guide to the future, anticipatory practices are coming to the foreground of political, organizational and personal life. Research into anticipation, however, has not kept pace... Read more
Garry Jacobs, Winston P. Nagan, Alberto Zucconi
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract The social sciences have contributed significantly to humanity’s remarkable progress over the past two centuries, but the multidimensional crises confronting the world today reflect the need to rapidly move beyond the limitations imposed by the compartmentalization of social science disciplines and the absence of common unifying principles equivalent to those... Read more
John Scales Avery
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract The history of World War I is reviewed, starting with a discussion of the development of nationalist movements in Europe. It is pointed out that the global disaster started with a seemingly small operation by Austria, which escalated uncontrollably into an all-destroying conflagration. A striking feature of the war was that none of the people who started it had... Read more
Merlin Donald
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract The digital media are the new interface between mind and world. They enable us to gain instant access to an infinitely expandable collective memory system. This is an indispensable breakthrough, but has the potential to seriously violate the ancient co-evolutionary pact between brain and culture which has kept the rate of cultural and technological change... Read more
Karl Wagner
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract We live in a world of opportunity – the opportunity to use the insight generated through the multiple crises humanity finds itself in to transit into a much more liveable, sustainable and equitable society. A paradigm change seems to be taking place, a movement for change seems to be in the making, but at the same time there is a widespread feeling that things... Read more
Orio Giarini
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract Exactly 100 years ago, Austrian writer Robert Musil’s book “The Man Without Qualities” foresaw the cultural challenge that Relativity and Quantum Theory would pose to the Newtonian mechanistic worldview of the 19th century. His book anticipated the transition that would eventually compel a deterministic, reductionist science of predictability to enter into... Read more
Roberto Poli
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract The distinction between complicated and complex systems is of immense importance, yet it is often overlooked. Decision-makers commonly mistake complex systems for simply complicated ones and look for solutions without realizing that ‘learning to dance’ with a complex system is definitely different from ‘solving’ the problems arising from it. The situation... Read more
Raoul Weiler, Juri Engelbrecht
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract This paper is the result of two recent e-workshops organized by The World Academy of Art and Science (WAAS), one on the Science of Networks, the other on Complexity. These Sci­ences have emerged in the last few decades and figure among a large group of ‘new’ sciences or knowledge acquisitors. They are connected with one another and are very well exposed in... Read more
Ivo Šlaus, Garry Jacobs
 Get Full Text in PDF The current socio-economic-political paradigm is destroying our most precious capital – natural, human and social. The current paradigm is non-sustainable. It has to be changed! The required paradigmatic change will have to be one of the most dramatic in the history of humankind, comparable to or even more profound than the agricultural, commercial, democratic, and... Read more
Ashok Natarajan
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract Consciousness is creative. That creativity expresses in myriad ways – as moments in time in which decades of progress can be achieved overnight, as organizational innovations of immense power for social accomplishment; as creative social values that further influence the evolution of organizations and society; as the creativity of individuality in the leader,... Read more
John Scales Avery
Get Full Text in PDF Abstract T.R. Malthus' "An Essay on the Principle of Population" (1798) was one of the first systematic studies of the problem of population in relation to resources. It was the first such study to stress the fact that, in general, powerful checks operate at all times to keep human populations from increasing beyond the available food supply. In a later edition, published... Read more
Garry Jacobs, Orio Giarini, Ivo Šlaus
Get Full Text in PDF Insights from Trieste The Trieste Forum in March 2013 marked a significant milestone in the effort of the World Academy to evolve a comprehensive, integrated, transdisciplinary perspective for addressing global challenges. An initial presentation on the physics of Dark Matter aptly illustrated the need for new thinking in the social sciences. If the most mathematically... Read more
Peter Johnston
Get Full Text in PDF Abstract The emergence of the Internet as a measureable manifestation of our social and economic relationships changed the domination of networks in our lives. From about 2000, the internet has allowed us to study and understand the type of networks in which we live, and to model their behaviour. The Internet has fundamentally changed the distribution of wealth. The rich... Read more
Ivo Šlaus, Garry Jacobs
Get Full Text in PDF Abstract The World Academy has recently launched an initiative to bring together like-minded organizations and individuals to examine the root causes of the multiple challenges confronting humanity today and formulate a comprehensive strategy for addressing them. Its central premise is that viable, effective solutions can be found to meet the entire spectrum of economic,... Read more
Ivo Šlaus, Garry Jacobs
Get Full Text in PDF At the 2012 Global Roundtable conducted in Split, Croatia in July, co-sponsored by the World Academy of Art and Science, the organizers proposed introduction of a new TESLA award for unrecognized genius, an acronym for The Earth Supreme Level Award. This is an important and commendable initiative by philanthropist Hares Youssef which directly ties into the Academy’s... Read more
Pieter J. D. Drenth
Get Full Text in PDF Abstract Research misconduct is a serious threat to science and to society. A variety of Codes of Conduct for research integrity have been developed in Europe by universities, academies of sciences and funding organisations, but this has resulted in a patchwork of codes and procedures, which hampers international collaborative research. ALLEA and ESF have taken the... Read more
Ashok Natarajan
Get Full Text in PDF Abstract History that comes to us as a chronology of events is really a collective existence that is evolving through several stages to develop Individuality in all members of the society. The human community, nation states, linguistic groups, local castes and classes, and families are the intermediate stages in development of the Individual. The social process moves through... Read more
Robert W. Fuller
Get Full Text in PDF The arc of the moral universe is long but it bends towards justice. – Martin Luther King, Jr. 1. One Tribe Becomes Many Between fifty and one hundred thousand years ago, a small group of homo sapiens made its way out of Africa and established settlements in what we now call the Middle East. Over the millennia, we multiplied and spread across the whole earth. In response to... Read more
Bengt-Arne Vedin
Get Full Text in PDF Technology offers a number of examples of serendipity, of random discovery, of experiments going off the rails - though we highlight mostly the ones where the offshoots were spectacular. Aspartame was discovered - or involuntarily invented - in 1965 by James M Schlatter, a chemist working to produce an anti-ulcer drug. Schlatter just happened to experience a sweet taste when... Read more
Knowledge, Science & Values
Juri Engelbrecht, Momir Djurovic, Thomas Reuter
Rodolfo Fiorini, Carlos Alvarez Pereira, Garry Jacobs, Donato Kiniger-Passigli, Alberto Zucconi, Nebojša Nešković, Herwig Schopper, Vojislav Mitic, Hazel Henderson, Mariana Todorova, Witold Kinsner, Luigi Cocchiarella
Martin Ramirez, Juan Cayón-Peña
Winston P. Nagan, Megan Weeren
João Caraça
Saulo Casali Bahia
Murugesan Chandrasekaran
Emil Constantinescu
Janani Ramanathan
Janani Ramanathan
Ashok Natarajan
Janani Ramanathan
Garry Jacobs, Winston P. Nagan, Alberto Zucconi
John Scales Avery
Ashok Natarajan
John Scales Avery
Garry Jacobs, Orio Giarini, Ivo Šlaus
Ivo Šlaus, Garry Jacobs
Ashok Natarajan
Robert W. Fuller