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Peace and Security

Universal Nuclear Disarmament
Revolution in Human Affairs: The Root of Societal Violence
Human Rights, Liberty & Socio-Economic Justice: Economic Theory and the Ascent of Private Property Values
Mediation of Conflicts by Civil Society
Rising Expectations, Social Unrest & Development
Simulated ICJ Judgment : Revisiting the Lawfulness of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons
Flaws in the Concept of Nuclear Deterrance
Myth, Hiroshima and Fear: How we Overestimated the Usefulness of the Bomb
How Reliance on Nuclear Weapons Erodes and Distorts International Law and Global Order
Re-examining the 1996 ICJ Advisory Opinion: Concerning the Legality of Nuclear Weapons
India’s Disarmament Initiative 1988: Continuing Relevance, Valid Pointers for an NWFW
Nuclear Threats and Security
The Arms Trade Treaty Opens New Possibilities at the UN
Cooperative Security: A New Paradigm For A World Without Nuclear Weapons?
Actions to Enhance Global Security*: Focus on WMD and Terrorism
Integrated Approach to Peace & Human Security in the 21st Century*
A Flat World with Deep Fractures
Social Power, Law and Society
Peace, Security, Globalisation & Cultural Diplomacy

Ashok Natarajan
Abstract This article argues for a positive, comprehensive conception of peace that goes beyond the mere absence of war and a more integrated conception of human security that encompasses a wider range of issues than threats of physical violence. Education is one of humanity’s most effective social institutions for redirecting the violent physical energies of destruction into higher avenues of... Read more
Saulo Casali Bahia
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract The article aims to discuss some aspects of the formal centers of social power. Thus, it seeks to answer how power becomes institutionalized in formal social organizations; what is the source of political power and how it is converted into institutions of governance; how legal power is generated by society and how it grows; what is the relationship... Read more
Emil Constantinescu
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract The Internet manages to connect different parts of the world, defies geographical distances and gives the impression that our planet is flat, but the Internet is there only for the ones who have the possibility and the ability to use it. Our contemporary flat world has deep transversal fractures which, like in many geological structures, make a direct... Read more
Garry Jacobs
 Get Full Text in PDF Abstract Humanity has made remarkable progress during the past two centuries in advancing peace, democracy, human rights, economic development and social equality. The evolution of human relations has progressed far from the time when physical violence, war and conquest were the predominant form of international relations. Diplomacy has evolved from political... Read more
Desmond Browne, Garry Jacobs, Ivo Šlaus
“We need a new paradigm for the 21st century which is not dependent on what worked in the 20th century.”  Get Full Text in PDF Politicians are distracted with the on-going economic crisis and instability. While understandable this is far from the only challenge facing the world. If we are to seize the opportunities of the future then we have to address the legacy of the past and... Read more
Marc Finaud
 Get Full Text in PDF Editorial Note: This paper was presented at the international conference “Opportunities and Challenges for the 21st Century – Need for a New Paradigm”, which was organised by the United Nations Office and the World Academy of Art and Science and held at the United Nations Office in Geneva on June 3, 2013. Abstract If there is a loose consensus on aiming at a world free... Read more
John Scales Avery
Get Full Text in PDF Abstract   On 2 April, 2013, the Arms Trade Treaty, which had been blocked for ten years in the consensus-bound Conference on Disarmament in Geneva, was put directly before the United Nations General Assembly, and was passed by a massive majority. This historic victory opens new possibilities for progress on other seemingly intractable issues. In particular, it gives... Read more
Garry Jacobs, Winston P. Nagan
Get Full Text in PDF Abstract This article presents highlights and insights from the International Conference on “Nuclear Threats and Security” organized by the World Academy of Art and Science in association with the European Leadership Network and the Dag Hammarskjöld University College of International Relations and Diplomacy and sponsored by NATO at the Inter-University Centre, Dubrovnik on... Read more
Manpreet Sethi
Get Full Text in PDF Abstract The run up to the NPT Review Conference in 2010 brought nuclear disarmament into focus. Transitory though this trend turned out to be, it nevertheless became a trigger for India to re-examine its own position on disarmament. In order to take a considered view on the subject, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh instituted an Informal Group in October 2010 with the... Read more
Jasjit Singh
Get Full Text in PDF Abstract The primary objections raised against total elimination of nuclear weapons are built around a few arguments mostly of non-technical nature. Nuclear weapons and the strategies for their use have resulted in the establishment of a vicious circle within which the international community is trapped. The argument that the world will be unsafe without nuclear weapons is... Read more
John Burroughs
Get Full Text in PDF Abstract Deployment of nuclear forces as an international security mechanism for prevention of major war is far removed from the world envisaged by the United Nations Charter in which threat or use of force is the exception, not the rule. Reliance on nuclear weapons has also distorted the development of major instruments of international humanitarian law and international... Read more
Ward Wilson
Get Full Text in PDF Abstract Recent evidence from World War II and the Cold War shows that nuclear weapons are far less useful as military and political tools than has been believed. Far from giving a madman the power to conquer the world, nuclear weapons are clumsy, dangerous technology with very few real uses — even if you have a monopoly. No one does his best thinking when gripped by fear.... Read more
Winston P. Nagan, Garry Jacobs
Get Full Text in PDF Abstract The current international security framework is based on an incomplete, anachronistic conception of sovereignty shaped largely by historical circumstance rather than principles of universal justice. Evolution of the global community over the past half century necessitates a reformulation of the concept to justly represent the rights of individual citizens and the... Read more
John Scales Avery
Get the Full Text in PDF Abstract The concept of nuclear deterrence is seriously flawed, and it violates the fundamental ethical principles of all major religions. Besides being morally unacceptable, nuclear weapons are also illegal according to a historic 1996 decision of the International Court of Justice, a ruling that reflects the opinion of the vast majority of the worldʼs peoples. Even a... Read more
Winston P. Nagan
Get Full Text in PDF Abstract The author prepared this simulated judgment at the request of Cadmus editors to demonstrate that there is ample ground for revisiting and revising the landmark 1996 advisory opinion of the ICJ on the legality of nuclear weapons. The ICJ failed to anticipate the proliferation of nuclear weapons, which expands the evolution of the concept of sovereignty, the potential... Read more
Ashok Natarajan
Get Full Text in PDF Abstract: The relationship between peace and development holds the key to effective strategies for addressing the roots of social unrest. Rising expectations are the principal driving force for social development. However, the faster and higher aspirations rise, the greater the gap between expectations and reality. That gap promotes a sense of frustration, depravation and... Read more
Melanie Greenberg, Robert J. Berg, Cora Lacatus
Get Full Text in PDF The number and severity of conflicts (violent clashes where there are more than 1000 casualties) have declined markedly since the end of the Cold War. This is shown graphically below despite this being a time of high population growth:1 Figure1: Number of reported, codable deaths from state-based armed conflict, 1946-2005 Even including a rise in the number of terrorist... Read more
Jasjit Singh
Get Full Text in PDF At the time of writing, there is an obvious and tragic upheaval in the Arab world and a large number of other developing nations. North Africa from Mauritania to the Suez Canal and Yemen, the Persian Gulf from Iraq to Bahrain and Oman, and Afghanistan are on fire, much of it fuelled by religious ideologies, but also supported by Great Power politics. This upheaval comes on... Read more
Manpreet Sethi
Get Full Text in PDF 1. Introduction Universal nuclear disarmament** is not a new concept. From the time that the weapon was first used in 1945, and once the horrendous destruction that it could cause was understood, countries have struggled with the challenge of how to put the genie back into the bottle. To little avail. Nuclear abolition has proved to be an elusive objective owing to the lack... Read more
Winston P. Nagan
Get Full Text in PDF 1. Introduction In the Introduction to the first issue of CADMUS, Ivo Šlaus and Garry Jacobs essentially provide us with a reminder that the founders of modern economics were also important moral philosophers. In particular, Adam Smith would appear to be influenced by the idea that economics has a great deal to do with human well-being. His theory was meant to be a tool to... Read more
Peace and Security
Saulo Casali Bahia
Emil Constantinescu
Desmond Browne, Garry Jacobs, Ivo Šlaus
Garry Jacobs, Winston P. Nagan
Melanie Greenberg, Robert J. Berg, Cora Lacatus